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Chemistry

Prep for chemistry entrance exams the right way. Review summary concepts, watch animations, and take unlimited practice exams. This animation analyses and interprets the sp3 hybridization in carbon, taking ethane as the reference example.
Experiments
Electrochemistry
How To Galvanize Metal
Make Sulfuric Acid
Desiccator Bag
Make A Zinc Air Battery
PCB Tinning Solution
Trimethyl Orthoformate
Potassium Nitrate
Chlorotoluene Isomers
Extract Diethyl Ether
Liquid Nitrogen
Metals Recovery
Precious Metal Refining
Mercury Vids
Sodium Hydroxide Lye
Chemistry Experiments
Make PH Indicator
Fun With Dry Ice
Liquid Fueled Rocket
Sulfur Chloride
Rare Earth Elements
Chlorination Of Isobutene
Making Ferrate Iron


Periodic Table
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Phosphorus
Titanium
Copper
Krypton
Technetium
Tin
Lanthanum
Gadolinium
Lutetium
Platinum
Astatine
Uranium
Einsteinium
Seaborgium
Nihonium
Steel Making
Oxygen
Titanium
Tellurium


Chemistry
Naming Compounds
Solutions And Molarity
AP Chemistry
Atomic Models
Solutions
Lewis Diagrams
Synthesis And Decomposition
The Rate Law
Reaction Intermediates
Energy Processes
Entropy
Equilibrium
Statistics and Graphs


Food Science
Distilling Rum
Poisonous Mushrooms
Black Pudding
Thai Chili Sauce
Sugar Vs Corn Syrup
Coffee
Candy Canes
Lasagne
Peanut Allergies
Peanut Butter
Toaster Pastries
Canned Tomatoes
Electrolytes
How Milk Becomes Cheese
Absinthe
Ketchup | How It's Made
Smoked Salmon


Industry
Aluminum And Mercury
Toilet Paper Moonshine
Extracting Lidocaine
How To Make Ampoules
Turning Paper Into Plastic
Making Glow Toys
Glycerine Glycerol
Nitrous Oxide
Bakelite Plastic
Cleaning Potassium Metal
How To Dissolve Cotton
Making Sunscreen
Mercury Metal
Iodine Clock Reaction
Elemental Iodine
Making Dyes From Scratch
Wintergreen
Hexanoiccaproic Acid
How To Make Cadaverine
Sodium Carbonate
Elemental Bromine
Phenylhydrazine HCL
Separate Dichloromethane
Aspirin To Acetaminophen
Burning Sulfur
Potassium Permanganate


Chemical Elements
Alkali Metals
Lanthanides
Metallurgy
Lead
Zirconium
Copper
Chemical Reactions
Sodium Reactions
Platinum Metal
Manganese
Neon
Xenon Gas
Helium - Superfluid
Tellurium
Growing Crystals
Transparency


Chemical Engineering

Chemical engineers apply the principles of chemistry, biology, physics, and math to solve problems that involve the production or use of chemicals, fuel, drugs, food, and many other products. They design processes and equipment for manufacturing, test production methods, and oversee byproducts treatment. Process engineers are specialists working in a particular process, such as oxidation or polymerization (making plastics and resins).

Chemists may specialize in a particular field, such as nanomaterials or biological engineering. Still others specialize in developing specific products. In this capacity, chemical engineers may be exposed to health or safety hazards when handling certain chemicals and plant equipment, but such exposure can be minimized if proper health and safety procedures are followed.


What do chemical engineers do on a daily basis?
  1. Conduct research to develop new and improved manufacturing processes.
  2. Establish safety procedures for those working with dangerous chemicals.
  3. Develop processes for separating components of liquids and gases, or for generating electrical currents, by using controlled chemical processes.
  4. Design and plan the layout of equipment.
  5. Conduct tests and monitor the performance of processes throughout production.
  6. Troubleshoot problems with manufacturing processes.
  7. Evaluate equipment and processes to ensure compliance with safety and environmental regulations.
  8. Estimate production costs for management.

Chemistry Education

Chemical engineers must have a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering or a related field. Programs in chemical engineering usually take 4 years to complete and include classroom, laboratory, and field studies. Students interested in studying chemical engineering will benefit from taking physical science courses, such as biochemistry, physics, and cellular biology. They also should take math courses, including trigonometry and calculus.

At some universities, students can opt to enroll in 5-year engineering programs that lead to both a bachelor's degree and a master's degree concurrently. ABET accredits engineering programs. ABET-accredited programs in chemical engineering include courses in biochemistry, physics, and cellular biology. These programs also include the design and analysis of chemical, physical, and biological processes.


Chemistry Jobs

Chemical engineers held about 32,700 jobs in 2017. The median annual wage for chemical engineers was $98,340 in May 2017. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $60,770, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $158,800. A survey report by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers indicated that the median yearly salary of those with no supervisory responsibility was $106,300. Employment of chemical engineers is projected to grow 8 percent from 2017 to 2026.

Many chemical engineers work in industries whose products are sought by many manufacturing firms. For instance, they work for firms that manufacture plastic resins, which are used to increase fuel efficiency in automobiles. Increased availability of domestically produced natural gas should increase manufacturing potential in the industries employing these engineers. In addition, chemical engineering will continue to migrate into dynamic fields, such as nanotechnology, alternative energies, and biotechnology, and thereby help to sustain demand for engineering services in many manufacturing industries.


Atomic Chemistry
Orbitals
Atomic Radius
Electron Configuration
Valence Electrons
Molecules
Molecular Geometry
Sphere Packing


Periodic Table, Chemical Bonding
Interactive Periodic Table
Valence Electrons
Ionization Energy
Electronegativity
Metals
Transition Elements
Ionic & Covalent Bonds


Chemical Reactions
Molecular Formulas
Moles and Avogadro's Number
Chemical Formulas
Mass Composition
Chemical Equations
Balancing Equations
Limiting Reagent
Catalysts


Gas Laws
Gases
Vapor Pressure
Diffusion
Gas Test 1
Gas Test 2
Gas Chromatography


Thermodynamics
Energy Transfer
Conservation of Energy
Calorimetry
Heat Exchange
Boiling Point
Freezing Point
Specific Heat
Bond Energy
Enthalpy
Entropy
Free Energy


Industrial Chemistry
Cement & Building Materials
Dyes and Organic Pigments
Essential Oils & Cosmetics
Fertilizers
Pharmaceuticals
Physical Chemistry
Biochemistry
Plastics
Explosives
Surface Chemistry
Textiles
States of Matter
Phase Diagrams
Van der Waals Forces
Covalent Networks
Metallic and Ionic Crystals
Suspensions, Colloids
Solutions


Acids & Bases
Equilibrium
Le Chatelier's Principle
pH, pOH, and pKw
pKa and pKb
Acid Base Reactions
Strong Acids
Acid Ionization
Buffers
Titration


Oxidation/Reduction Reactions
Oxidation States
Batteries
Redox Reactions
Galvanic Cells
Photo-voltaic Cells
Electrolytes
Polarity


Organic Chemistry
Drug Development
Sigma & Pi Bonds
Resonance structures
Stereochemistry
Isomerism
Optical Activity
Mass spectrometry
NMR spectroscopy
Alcohols
Aldehydes
Alkanes and cycloalkanes
Alkenes
Amines
Amino Acids
Aromatics
Benzene Rings
Carbohydrates
Chlorides
DNA
Esters
Lipids
Peptides
Polymerization
Proteins


Radioactivity
Types of Particles
Half-life
Radioactive Decay
Carbon 14 Dating




Free Practice Tests

Each of the following multiple-choice chemistry tests has 10 questions, reviewing your knowledge of basic chemistry and principles. No sign up required, just straight to the test.
 
 

Chemistry Job Listings

Chemists and materials scientists study physical substances at the atomic and molecular levels, and uncover the methodology of chemical reactions. Chemical engineers, on the other hand, apply an interdisciplinary approach, combining chemistry, biology, physics, and math to solve problems in fuel production, drug development, or new food products. As research scientists, they are tasked with the invention of novel chemical processes, and must design equipment for large-scale manufacturing. Further, the increasing demand for lifesaving new drugs will expand opportunities for biochemists. For example, biochemists will be needed to conduct genetic research and to develop new medicines and treatments.

Each link below lists current openings:Starting Salary
(up to)
10 Year Salary
(up to)
Agricultural Engineers$67,810$96,270
Biochemists$70,900$129,510
Chemical Engineers$71,600$108,670
Chemists$66,040$106,310
Computer Programmers$75,500$106,610
Engineers$81,750$120,610
High School Chemistry Teacher$38,550$52,180
Industrial Engineering$70,630$100,980
Lab Technicians$31,470$43,920
Professors of Chemistry$57,410$83,760


 

Chemical Reactions

Try clicking on one of the links below. This is an excellent reference list to study from, as it returns visual details and the mechanism of both the specified chemical reaction, as well as related reactions.

Chemical Reactions A - JChemical Reactions K - Z
Acetoacetic Ester CondensationKabachnik-Fields Reaction
Acetoacetic Ester SynthesisKindler Reaction
Acyloin CondensationKnoevenagel Condensation
Alder-Ene ReactionKochi Reaction
Aldol AdditionKolbe Electrolysis
Aldol CondensationKolbe Nitrile Synthesis
Appel ReactionKolbe-Schmitt Reaction
Arbuzov ReactionKoser's Reagent
Arndt-Eistert SynthesisKulinkovich Reaction
Azide-Alkyne 1,3-Dipolar CycloadditionKumada Coupling
Azo CouplingLawesson's Reagent
Baeyer-Villiger OxidationLeuckart Thiophenol Reaction
Baker-VenkataramanLuche Reduction
Balz-Schiemann ReactionMalonic Ester Synthesis
Bamford-Stevens ReactionMannich Reaction
Barton DecarboxylationMarkovnikov's Rule
Barton-McCombie ReactionMcMurry Reaction
Baylis-Hillman ReactionMyers-Saito Cyclization
Beckmann RearrangementMichael Addition
Benzilic Acid RearrangementMichaelis-Arbuzov Reaction
Benzoin CondensationMitsunobu Reaction
Bergman CyclizationMiyaura Borylation Reaction
Bestmann-Ohira ReagentMukaiyama Aldol Addition
Biginelli ReactionNazarov Cyclization
Birch ReductionNef Reaction
Bischler-Napieralski ReactionNegishi Coupling
Blaise ReactionNewman-Kwart Reaction
Blanc ReactionNitroaldol Reaction
Bohlmann-Rahtz SynthesisNozaki-Hiyama Coupling
Boronic Acid Mannich ReactionNucleophilic Substitution
Bouveault-Blanc ReductionOhira-Bestmann Reagent
Brook RearrangementOlefin Metathesis
Brown HydroborationOppenauer Oxidation
Bucherer-Bergs ReactionOverman Rearrangement
Buchwald-Hartwig Cross CouplingOxy-Cope Rearrangement
Cadiot-Chodkiewicz CouplingOzonolysis
Cannizzaro Oxidation ReductionPaal-Knorr Furan Synthesis
CBS ReductionPaal-Knorr Pyrrole Synthesis
Chan-Lam CouplingPasserini Reaction
Claisen CondensationPaterno-Büchi Reaction
Claisen RearrangementPauson-Khand Reaction
Clemmensen ReductionPechmann Condensation
Click ChemistryPetasis Reaction
Cope EliminationPeterson Olefination
Cope RearrangementPinacol Coupling Reaction
Conia-Ene ReactionPinacol Rearrangement
Corey-Bakshi-ShibataPinner Reaction
Corey-Chaykovsky ReactionPrilezhaev Reaction
Corey-Fuchs ReactionPrins Reaction
Corey-Kim OxidationPschorr Reaction
Corey-Seebach ReactionRamberg-Bäcklund Reaction
Corey-Winter Olefin SynthesisReformatsky Reaction
Coumarin SynthesisRing Closing Metathesis
Criegee OzonolysisRing Opening Metathesis
Cross MetathesisRitter Reaction
Curtius ReactionRobinson Annulation
Dakin ReactionRosenmund Reduction
Darzens CondensationRosenmund-von Braun
Darzens ReactionRubottom Oxidation
Delépine ReactionSakurai Reaction
Dess-Martin OxidationSandmeyer Reaction
DiazotisationSaytzeff's Rule
Dieckmann CondensationSchiemann Reaction
Diels-Alder ReactionSchlosser Modification
1,3-Dipolar CycloadditionSchmidt Reaction
Directed ortho MetalationSchotten-Baumann Reaction
Doebner ModificationSeebach Umpolung
Eglinton ReactionSeyferth-Gilbert Homologation
Ene ReactionSarett Reagent
Enyne MetathesisShapiro Reaction
EpoxidationSharpless Aminohydroxylation
Eschweiler-Clarke ReactionSharpless Dihydroxylation
Ester PyrolysisSharpless Epoxidation
Fischer EsterificationShi Epoxidation
Favorskii ReactionSimmons-Smith Reaction
Finkelstein ReactionSonogashira Coupling
Fischer EsterificationStaudinger Cycloaddition
Fischer Indole SynthesisStaudinger Reaction
Fleming-Tamao OxidationStaudinger Reduction
Friedel-Crafts AcylationStaudinger Synthesis
Friedel-Crafts AlkylationSteglich Esterification
Friedlaender SynthesisStetter Reaction
Fries RearrangementStille Coupling
Fukuyama CouplingStrecker Synthesis
Fukuyama ReductionSuzuki Coupling
Gabriel SynthesisSwern Oxidation
Gewald ReactionTamao-Kumada Oxidation
Glaser CouplingTebbe Olefination
Griesbaum CoozonolysisTishchenko Reaction
Grignard ReactionTsuji-Trost Reaction
Grubbs ReactionTrost Allylation
Haloform ReactionUgi Reaction
Hay CouplingUllmann Reaction
Heck ReactionUpjohn Dihydroxylation
Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky ReactionVan Leusen Oxazole Synthesis
Henry ReactionVan Leusen Reaction
Hiyama CouplingNucleophilic Substitution
Hiyama-Denmark CouplingVilsmeier Reaction
Hofmann EliminationWacker-Tsuji Oxidation
Hofmann's RuleWeinreb Ketone Synthesis
Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons ReactionWenker Synthesis
Hosomi-Sakurai ReactionWillgerodt-Kindler Reaction
Huisgen CycloadditionWilliamson Synthesis
Hunsdiecker ReactionWittig-Horner Reaction
HydroborationWittig Reaction
Ireland-Claisen RearrangementWohl-Ziegler Reaction
Itsuno-Corey ReductionWolff-Kishner Reduction
Iwanow Reaction (Reagent)Wolff Rearrangement
Jacobsen EpoxidationWoodward cis-Hydroxylation
Jacobsen-Katsuki EpoxidationWoodward Reaction
Jocic ReactionWurtz Reaction
Jones OxidationWurtz-Fittig Reaction
Julia-Lythgoe OlefinationYamaguchi Esterification

Chemistry Compound Database - searchable by partial name, melting point, boiling point, index of refraction, molecular formula, UV absorption, mass spectral peaks, and chemical types.

Chemical Analysis


Oxidating AgentsReducing Agents
AcetoneADH
Ammonium cerium nitrateAlcohol dehydrogenase
Ammonium peroxydisulfateBoranes
1,4-BenzoquinoneCatecholborane
Benzoyl peroxideCarrots
BleachCopper hydride
N-BromosaccharinCopper (low valent)
(E)-But-2-enenitrileChromium (low valent)
tert-Butyl nitriteDaucus Carota
CANDecaborane
Cerium ammonium nitrateDIBAL-H
3-Chloroperoxybenzoic acidDiborane
Chromium trioxideDimethylsulfide borane
Collins ReagentDMSB
Corey-Suggs ReagentFe
CMHPFormaldehyde
Copper compoundsFormic acid
CrotononitrileHantzsch Ester
Cumene hydroperoxideHydrazine
DBDMHHydrogen
DDQIndium (low valent)
DEADIron
Dess-Martin periodinaneIsopropanol
DIADLAH
DIHLithium
Dimethyl sulfoxideMagnesium
Ferric chlorideManganese
Ferric nitrate3-Mercaptopropionic acid
Formic acid3-MPA
Hydrogen peroxideNBSH
Hypervalent bromineNickel
Hypervalent iodineNickel borohydride
HTIBNiobium (low valent)
IBXPhenylsilane
IodinePhosphorous acid
Iodobenzene dichloridePinacolborane
Iodosobenzene diacetatePMHS
N-IodosuccinimidePotassium
IodosylbenzenePotassium iodide
2-Iodoxybenzoicacid2-Propanol
Iron(III), (V) and (IV)Sodium cyanoborohydride
Jones ReagentSodium dithionite
Koser's ReagentSodium hydrosulfite
Manganese compoundsStrontium
MCPBATitanium (low valent)
MethyltrioxorheniumTMDSO
Molybdenum compoundsTributyltin hydride
MTOTrichlorosilane
Nitric AcidTriethylphosphine
OxygenTrimethylphoshpine
OzoneTriphenylphosphine
Sodium bromateTriphenylphosphite
WaterTriethylsilane

        source:   Organic-Chemistry.org


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